Jane Austen only ever wrote one duke.
He doesn’t even appear on the page. He warrants a brief secondhand mention during the amateur theatricals of Mansfield Park, and POOF, farewell to his grace. There are a few titled Austen characters floating around in the novels, but even such plain titles as Sir, Lord, or Lady are rarefied and remarkable among all the misses and misters.
Caught as we are in the current wave of Ducaphilia, it’s hard for us to dissociate Austen from the sparkling titles that abound in modern historical romance. Every duke is a Darcy, after all, a well-bred, well-monied, appropriately snobby catch of a man. A lot of this transformation we can lay at Georgette Heyer’s door — the Austen –> Heyer –> Julia Quinn geneology seems pretty self-evident. (And there are plenty of names we could sub in for Quinn in that third step, no mistake: Eloisa James and Sarah MacLean, for instance.) But Austen’s primary heroines are untitled, unlanded, and uncomfortably financed. The social ground is always ready to shift beneath their feet.
Which is why it fits so nicely when Lydia San Andres’ delightful Summer for Scandal transposes the structure of Pride and Prejudice to Arroyo Blanco, a fictional Caribbean town in 1911. Here social status can rise and fall with the speed of a rumor, small-scale authority can flex its muscle like a tyrant, and the course of a woman’s whole life can be changed by something as ordinary as tipping over a rowboat in a lagoon. (White linen, lagoon swims, and guava jelly — reading this book made me yearn for the tropics.)
At the same time, the story reverses several key dynamics of Austen’s novel, and part of the fun for this reader was tracing how those changes worked within and against the familiar P&P pattern. This makes for a strong, elegant romance that gets better and more profound the more I look at it.
Naturally, spoilers will abound from here on out.
We begin with engaging heroine Emilia Cruz, a famed poet’s daughter, ardent suffragette, and secret author of a shockingly lurid serialized romance that’s taking Arroyo Blanco by storm. If you’re not already leaping to click that buy link above, well, then we’re very different people. Her father has been drowning his sorrows in rum since her mother died, and the family budget has been shrinking down to nothing since her father stopped writing. Shades of Mr. Bennet and the entailment, which makes murky his daughters’ future.
But Emilia has options Elizabeth Bennet did not: the True Accounts, as her lush Arabian Nights-inflected romance is called, brings in enough money to supplement her sister Susana’s schoolteacher salary and support them in reasonable comfort. The novel’s end hints that marriage may actually hold her back, earnings-wise — so her situation is nearly the reverse of Elizabeth’s, in terms of financial incentives.
At the same time, because Emilia is putting her work out there to be judged publicly, she has to contend with criticism on a level Elizabeth Bennet never imagined, despite all her embarrassing family’s antics. As Mr. Bennet says: “Wherever you and Jane are known you must be respected and valued; and you will not appear to less advantage for having a couple of — or I may say, three very silly sisters” (Austen chapter 41). But Emilia Cruz has to sit by and bite her tongue as her literary hero snipes at her story’s “blatant disregard for coherence” (San Andres, Kindle location 116). This is a much deeper wound than Darcy disparaging Elizabeth’s looks.
That literary hero, Mr. Ruben Torres, is in fact our literary hero, and he is most definitely a Darcy. His family is well-off, and Ruben himself is described in the most effusive of terms:
She’d read his book, a debut so brilliant it had been lauded by all the critics, and had switched their newspaper subscription to El Diario Nuevo solely because she enjoyed reading his book reviews, which were intelligent, thoughtful, and so filled with a sharp, witty humor that more often than not she found herself laughing out loud. He was one of the writers she most admired.
And he hated her stories. (Kindle location 83)
This is riches indeed, to a writing heroine. Ten thousand a year is nothing compared to this wealth of critical acclaim and literary respectability. It’s also notable that Ruben Torres’ skill with a pen is what won our heroine’s interest, just as Darcy’s letter is what moves Elizabeth into a more charitable frame of mind. Literary brilliance is also something that makes a more understandable, democratic foundation for pride: it’s not class snobbery, really (though, you know, it is) but the snobbery of talent that Ruben has to overcome to earn his happy ending.
Of course, the pride of talent is its own kind of prison. J. K. Rowling borrowed the name Robert Gailbraith to see her work judged on its merits and not by the expectations of her past work; here, Ruben hides behind a pen name as the editor of Blanco y Negro, a viciously biting gossip sheet. “Pseudonyms,” he says, “are masks for cowards to hide behind” (105): he’s criticizing himself, really, but Emilia bristles on her own behalf and begins arguing in defense of her work. This is a beautifully tense point of conflict, and a very effective modernizing of the initial division between Darcy and Elizabeth.
As with Austen, there’s a sweeter secondary romance as a contrast to the snappy banter of our main couple: Ruben is in town because his friend Luis Rojas is returning from a college stint. Luis immediately gets googly-eyed over Susana, who’s loved him since childhood and moons happily right back. Ruben, like Darcy before him, is aghast — but not because he thinks Susana is unworthy. Rather, he doubts Luis’ steadfastness as a lover, based on a checkered past full of well-meant flings and one disastrously broken betrothal. This is Bingley as imagined by Wodehouse, and I’d be lying if I said I wasn’t giggling with joy and totally sympathizing with Ruben’s delicate predicament.
Which, it turns out, is totally misguided. Luis is in fact as deeply, steadily, irrevocably in love with Susana as she is with him: all those flings were merely his way of getting comfortable with the dynamics of relationships until he could come home and try it out for real with the girl of his dreams. While Bingley and Jane would never have been reunited without Darcy and Elizabeth’s stage-managing, Susana and Luis are meant to be — maybe even more so than our primary hero and heroine. They would have had a perfectly ordinary, undramatic romance, if only our protagonists had never interfered. Ruben is the cause of the same implausible reversals and dramatic misunderstandings that he so abhors in Emilia’s True Accounts.
The Accounts themselves offer an interesting subversive space in terms of the sexual double standard, which San Andres’s world shares with Austen’s. We are not, I think, meant to take it as an irony that Emilia is a virgin when she begins publishing this lust-filled romp. She may be a virgin, but she’s done her research:
Emilia leaned back against the cushions and began to write a short description of the contents of the sultan’s trousers …. a great deal of the things she wrote about were born from things she’d read in books she’d had to order from Ciudad Real, as the library in Arroyo Blanco lacked most kinds of salacious literature. (275)
Writing, specifically about sex, offers escape not merely from money woes but also from the rigid expectations of feminine purity and virginity culture. It is an outlet and an exploration, and even a means of seducing Ruben once she decides that’s something she wants to do. (The sex scenes are A+, luminous and fun and, well … did you ever want to hug two characters while they were doing it on the page? Is that just me?) It is not every light-hearted romance that could engage so savvily and successfully with the craft and uses of literature. For instance: Ruben makes notes and suggestions on a manuscript of Emilia’s, which mean she has to make notes on his notes, and she gets so carried away by this textual intercourse that she sneaks out of her house in the middle of the night and demands he take her to bed. Words and bodies all entwining. It’s lovely.
Part of this might be my own nostalgic lens coloring the text: for one thing, I won Mr. Waite’s heart by translating dirty Latin poetry at him. For another, when I was a grad student, much of the romance-centered scholarship I found centered on how romantic fiction was politicized and functioned as allegory in Latin American history. (Oh, hey, look, there’s a hint of this on Wikipedia.) With a Hispanic hero and heroine, both authors, deliberately constructing themselves as interpreters of human experience, it’s hard not to see parallels. I wish I’d had the knowledge base to read more of that scholarship. I was/am wistful at the thought that romance could be part of a major cultural conversation, rather than a niche interest, the way it often feels in American media despite its consistent popularity.
Speaking of sex, there’s a Wickham analogue here, too: Cristobal Mendez. He’s plausibly awful: a debt-ridden, venomous, mean-spirited scoundrel. He’s also technically our heroine’s boss — she works as a typist, when she’s not writing — reversing the Wickham-as-outsider pattern found in Austen. He’s very much a figure of institutional power and sexual aggression: “He reminded Emilia of the duke [from the Accounts] — wealthy and lazy and so very good looking it was inconceivable to him that a woman wouldn’t swoon if he so much as glanced her way” (1025). A centralized Wickham is a terrifying Wickham, because he is a Wickham who cannot be escaped; nor will he disappear into the wilds of London and leave our heroine in peace. Because he is so central to Arroyo Blanco, he is not a Wickham who Ruben has natural leverage over, either: he presents a very real problem. This problem, like all the others, is solved by writing, though I leave it to you, Reader, to discover precisely how.
So far I’ve said nothing about the feminist subtext of the novel, but there’s plenty of it worth discussing: for instance, the big social event at the climactic moment is not a ball or a picnic, but a book fair, run by the women of the town. Much of the secondary conflict also emerges from the suffragette society many of the younger women are a part of: there is a debate on what sort of literature feminists should endorse as being good for women (NO I’M NOT CRINGING IN RECOGNITION YOU’RE CRINGING IN RECOGNITION). If you wonder how it’s feminist for feminists to be in conflict, may I point out that none of these issues revolve around women competing for dudes? And that respectability politics are still right here beside us modern-day feminists? (E.g. “If we keep our tone civil, we’ll convince more dudes to treat us like people.”) Naturally our heroine comes down on the side of escapist literature being just as necessary as feminist articles — but it’s not presented as a moral triumph, with the villainess being humiliated. Her exposure as the author of the True Accounts is a choice she makes for herself, but it still has some pretty unpleasant fallout she can’t avoid just by being self-confident and strong.
It’s been a roundabout argument, but I think what I’m trying to get at here is that Austen’s world feels completed at the end of Pride and Prejudice: the good people have married good people, the evil people have married evil people, all our thematic threads have been neatly tied up and carefully knotted. Summer for Scandal manages to take the same basic structure, and with a few flipped switches end up with something much more fluid and ambiguous. The ending is really more of a beginning, with our protagonists poised to begin a new and unexplored phase of their respective careers, with new understandings of their place in their families and community — all of which imply major changes to a place we’ve spent the book getting to know. Villains of long standing have been removed, old feuds patched, and emotional landscapes reimagined: there is the sense not of coming to an end, but a world being remade into something better than it was before.
And isn’t that the happiest of endings?
Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. The Republic of Pemberley. Accessed September 29, 2015.
San Andres, Lydia. Summer for Scandal. Amazon Digital Services: July 2015. Ebook.